Canada Quantitative Data Analysis Report
 
(Excluding paired analysis of TLs and Principals in Same School)
 
 
Due to the fact that the majority of schools who responded were K-6, urban, public schools, the results of this study will reflect the perceptions of urban primary schools that are public/governmental more than rural schools, private schools and schools of other types (ie high schools, K-10, 11-12, 7-10).

These results can not be generalised to the Canadian population due to the fact that the sample size is skewed in the above manner, However, it is likely the results are in the general direction for the populations of urban K-6 schools in Canada.
 

FREQUENCY ANALYSIS DATA

59 Teacher Librarians responded in Canada to the questionnaire.
FREQUENCY DATA was as follows:

Age:
45.8% of teacher librarians who responded were between the ages of 40-49.
38.9% of teacher librarians who responded were between the ages of 50-59.
4.2% of teacher librarians who responded were between the ages of 20-29.
9.7% of teacher librarians who responded were between the ages of 30-39.
1.4% of teacher librarians who responded were 60+ years of age.

Gender:
88% of teacher librarians who responded were male.
12% of teacher librarians who responded were female.

Advertised Position:
66.7% of teacher librarians who responded were appointed to an advertised position, the remaining 33.7% were appointed to unadvertised positions, reasons were not given for appointment.

Internet Connection in Library Resource Centre:
90% of TLís who responded had 1 internet connection in the LRC.
8.6% of TLís who responded had 2 internet connection in the LRC.
1.4% of TLís who responded had 0 internet connection in the LRC.

There is some concern on this question about whether or not research participants understood the question being asked, thus the accuracy of results is uncertain.

Internet Points in LRC:
81.7% of TLís who responded had 1 internet point in the LRC.
14.1% of TLís who responded had 2 internet point in the LRC.
2.8% of TLís who responded had 6 internet point in the LRC.
1.4% of TLís who responded had 9 internet point in the LRC.

The same concern exists with this question as with the internet connections in LRC question.

List Server:
72% of TLís who responded did not subscribe to a listserv for teacher librarians.
28% of TLís who responded did subscribe to a listserv for teacher librarians.

Number of Years in Administrative Positions:
46.2% of TLís who responded had not an spent any time in administrative positions.
16.9% of TLís who responded had spent 0-4 years in administrative positions.
16.9% of TLís who responded had spent 5-9 years in administrative positions.
4.6% of TLís who responded had spent 10-14 years in administrative positions.
7.7% of TLís who responded had spent 15-19 years in administrative positions.
3.1% of TLís who responded had spent 20-24 years in administrative positions.
4.6% of Tlís who responded had spent 25+ years in administrative positions.

Number of Years in Current Position:
38.2% of TLís who responded have been in current position for 0-4 years.
26.5% of TLís who responded have been in current position for 5-9 years.
16.2% of TLís who responded have been in current position for 10-14 years.
11.8% of TLís who responded have been in current position for 15-19 years.
7.4% of TLís who responded have been in current position for 20+ years.

Number of Years in Executive Position:
80% of TLís who responded have never been in an executive position.
15.4% of TLís who responded have spent between 1-4 years in an executive position.
3.1% of TLís who responded have spent between 5-9 years in an executive position.
1.5% of TLís who responded have spent between 15-19 years in an executive position.

Number of hours TL/s do/es in the School:
45.5% filled 1 f/t position equalling 40hrs/week.
22.8% did between 10-19 hours/week.
6.9% did between 0-9hours/week.
18.2% did between 20-29hours/week.
6.8% did between 30-39hours/week.

Professional Association Memberships (Number of):
24.4% of TLís who responded were members of 2 Professional Associations.
23.0% of TLís who responded were members of 3 Professional Associations.
41% of TLís who responded were members of 1 Professional Associations.
6.6% of TLís who responded were members of 4 Professional Associations.
1.6% of TLís who responded were members of 5 Professional Associations.
1.6% of TLís who responded were members of 0 Professional Associations.
1.6% of TLís who responded were members of 7 Professional Associations.

Qualifications:
24.6% of TLís who responded had an academic qualification of a BA (Hons) or BA dip ed or equivalent.
44.9% of TLís who responded had a Bachelors degree or equivalent.
29% of TLís who responded had an MA degree or equivalent.
1.4% of TLís who responded had a tafe certificate or equivalent.

Number of Years Teaching Prior to Appointment:
24.3% of TLís who responded had spent between 1-4 years teaching prior to appointment.
35.7% of TLís who responded had spent between 5-9 years teaching prior to appointment.
15.7% of TLís who responded had spent between 10-14 years teaching prior to appointment.
4.3% of TLís who responded had spent between 20+ years teaching prior to appointment.
12.9% of TLís who responded had spent between 0 years teaching prior to appointment.
7.1% of TLís who responded had spent between 15-19 years teaching prior to appointment.

Number of TL journals subscribed to:
18.3% of the TLís that responded subscribe to 2 journals.
21.7% of the TLís that responded subscribe to 3 journals.
18.3% of the TLís that responded subscribe to 1 journals.
21.7% of the TLís that responded subscribe to 4 journals.
5% of the TLís that responded subscribe to 0 journals.
1.7% of the TLís that responded subscribe to 5 journals.
6.7% of the TLís that responded subscribe to 6 journals.
1.7% of the TLís that responded subscribe to 7 journals.
1.7% of the TLís that responded subscribe to 10 journals.
1.7% of Tlís that responded subscribe to 12 journals.
1.7% of TLís that responded subscribe to 13 journals.
 

40 Principals responded in Canada to the questionnaire.
FREQUENCY DATA was as follows:

Age:
17% of Principals who responded were between 40-49 years of age.
62.3% of Principals who responded were between 50-59 years of age.
3.8% of Principals who responded were between 30-39 years of age.

Gender:
75% of principals who responded were male.
25% of principals who responded were female.

Type of School:
97.7% of principals who responded came from government schools, the remaining 2.3% came from private schools.

Number of Years in Current Position:
52.3% of principals who responded have been in current position for 0-4 years.
36.4% of principals who responded have been in current position for 5-9 years.
6.8% of principals who responded have been in current position for 10-14 years.
4.5% of principals who responded have been in current position for 20+ years.

Number of Years in Executive Position:
20.5% of principals who responded have been in executive positions for 10-14 years.
18.2% of principals who responded have been in executive positions for 15-19 years.
15.9% of principals who responded have been in executive positions for 5-9 years.
25% of principals who responded have been in executive positions for 25+ years.
20.5% of principals who responded have been in executive positions for 20-24 years.

Number of TLís the Principal has Worked with:
35.7% of principals who responded have worked with 1-2 TLís.
38.1% of principals who responded have worked with 3-4 TLís.
14.3% of principals who responded have worked with 5-6 TLís.
7.1% of principals who responded have worked with 7-8 TLís.
4.8% of principals who responded have worked with more than 9 TLís.

Professional Associations:
18.4% of principals who responded were members of 2 Professional Associations.
18.4% of principals who responded were members of 3 Professional Associations.
36.8% of principals who responded were members of 1 Professional Associations.
7.9% of principals who responded were members of 0 Professional Associations.
15.8% of principals who responded were members of 4 Professional Associations.
2.6% of principals who responded were members of 7 professional associations.

Qualifications:
9.3% of principals who responded had an Honours, Dip Ed degree or equivalent.
67.4% of principals who responded had a MA degree.
18.6% of principals who responded had a Bachelors Degree.
4.7% of principals who responded had a PhD degree.

Number of Years Teaching Prior to Appointment: 
18.2% of principals who responded have spent 15-19 years teaching prior to appointment.
20.5% of principals who responded have spent 20+ years teaching prior to appointment.
40.9% of principals who responded have spent 10-14 years teaching prior to appointment.
9.1% of principals who responded have spent 5-9 years teaching prior to appointment.
11.4% of principals who responded have spent 0-4 hours teaching prior to appointment.
 

FREQUENCY ANALYSIS of School-based Information

Internet Connections in the school:
70.5% of responding principals have between 0-19 internet connections in their school.
11.4% of responding principals have between 20-39 internet conections in their school.
2.3% of responding principals have between 60-79 internet connections in their school.
4.5% of responding principals have between 80-99 internet connections in their school.
11.4% of responding principals have 100+ internet connnections in their school.
 
Internet Points in the School:
61.4% of responding principals have between 0-19 internet points in their school.
13.6% of responding principals have between 20-39 internet points in their school.
13.6% of responding principals have between 40-59 internet points in their school.
2.3% of responding principals have between 60-79 internet points in their school.
9.1% of responding principals have between 80-99 internet points in their school.

Number of Students in School:
22.7% of responding principals have 200-399 students in their school.
45.5% of responding principals have 400-599 students in their school.
9.1% of responding principals have 0-199 students in their school.
13.6% of responding principals have 1000+ students in their school.
9.1% of responding principals have 600-799 students in their school.

Number of Teaching Staff in School:
29.5% of principals who responded have 0-19 teaching staff.
56.8% of responding principals have 20-39 teaching staff.
2.3% of responding principals have 40-59 teaching staff.
4.5% of responding principals have 80-99 teaching staff.
4.5% of responding principals have 60-79 teaching staff.

Number of TLs on Staff:
45.5% of responding principals have one full/time TL.
54.5% of responding principals have less than one full/time TL.

Location of School:
90.5% of responding principalsí schools are located in urban areas.
9.5% of responding principalsí schools are located in rural areas.

Year Levels of School:
65.9% of responding principalsí schools were K-6.
9.1% of responding principalsí schools were 7-10.
6.8% of responding principalsí schools were 11-12.
2.3% of responding principalsí schools were K-10.
2.3% of responding principalsí school were 1-6.
2.3% of responding principalsí schools were 7-9.
11.4% of responding principalsí schools were 7-12.
 
 

DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS FROM FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

Descriptive Statistics from frequency analysis for Teacher Librarians perception of time spent on tasks/ or in support of tasks by the Principal
 
Question Present Present Future Future
  Mean SD Mean SD
1 3.51 .88 3.37 1.31
2 3.53 .70 3.49 1.14
3 3.66 .66 3.46 1.22
4 3.27 1.05 3.31 1.39
5 3.25 1.15 3.25 1.37
6 3.37 1.07 3.27 1.38
7 3.24 1.06 3.22 1.45
8 3.32 1.01 3.15 1.52
9 2.66 1.21 2.86 1.51
10 3.07 1.23 3.12 1.52
11 3.51 .70 3.37 1.23
12 2.66 1.41 2.98 1.49
13 3.58 .95 3.44 1.30
14 2.44 1.47 2.64 1.67
15 3.24 1.02 3.19 1.46
16 2.56 1.38 2.81 1.51
17 3.37 .83 3.19 1.36
18 3.05 .80 2.88 1.36
19 2.75 1.20 2.85 1.41
20 2.92 1.04 3.02 1.29
21 3.36 1.11 3.29 1.39
22 3.11 1.07 3.22 1.26
23 3.03 1.38 3.02 1.54
24 3.08 1.33 3.0 1.59
25 3.14 1.33 3.22 1.37
26 2.8 1.27 2.93 1.45
27 3.34 .98 3.31 1.26
28 3.0 1.4 3.22 1.35
29 3.17 1.04 3.1 1.34
30 2.37 1.72 2.8 1.67
31 3.34 1.59 2.86 1.58
 

Results from responses to Questions:

  1. Whilst on average the TLís who responded view their principals as spending between some and a lot of time advocating a facilitating the development of an information literate school, they feel that the principal should be spending just a little less time on this task.
  2. On average the TLís who responded view their principals as spending between some and a lot of time on ensuring that the attainment of information literacy is part of the school plan they feel that the principal should continue to spend this amount of time on this task in the future.
  3. TLís who responded presently believe that the principal spend between some and a lot of time encouraging and facilitating the professional development of staff, these TLís believe that the principal should continue to spend the same amount of time on the task in the future.
  4. TLís currently believe that their principals spend around some time on understanding and advocating the role of the teacher librarian (as per ministry/system policies) in the schoolís instructional program and that in the future the principal should continue spending this amount of time on this task.
  5. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending a little more than some time on demonstrating support for collaboration among the TL and teaching staff, but feel there is no need for this to increase in the future.
  6. TLís currently perceive their principals as pending a little more than some time on ensuring that the school library resource centre objectives reflect school goals, but feel there is no need for this to increase in the future.
  7. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending some time on ensuring that the TL has an appropriate allocation of support stuff, and feel this time is also sufficient for the future.
  8. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending a little over some time on allocating adequate, flexible time for the TL to administer the LRC and feel that this is adequate time for the future also.
  9. TLís currently perceive their principal as spending a between little time and some time on encouraging the teaching staff to involve themselves in the development of LRC policies and programs and feel that this is sufficient for the future.
  10. TLís currently perceive their principal as spending some time on encouraging the teaching staff to invest time in cooperatively planning and teaching with the TL, but should not increase this in the future.
  11. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending between some and a lot of time encouraging and facilitating the professional development of teaching staff to enhance their understanding and use of information technology, but this is sufficient for the future.
  12. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending between little and some time informing new teaching staff about the importance of collaborating with the TL but should be doing this some of the time in the future.
  13. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending a little more than some of their time on supporting the development of a resource collection that is current and relevant to the curriculum needs of the school but this is sufficient for the future.
  14. TLís currently perceive the principals as spending a bit more than a little time on encouraging teaching staff debate about information policy but should be spending a little bit more time on this task.
  15. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending a bit more than some of their time on ensuring that significant funding is allocated to the LRC budget, but this is sufficient for the future.
  16. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending between a little and some time on actively seeking outside school funding possibilities that can be used to supplement the LRC budget, but this should be increased to a little under some time in the future.
  17. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending some time on engaging in regular and timely communication with the TL at present but this is sufficient for the future.
  18. TLís perceive their principals as spending some time visiting the LRC to observe the work of the TL and believe that this should be decreased to a little under some time.
  19. TLís believe the principals currently spend a little under some time encouraging the TL to debate and justify current practice and that this is sufficient for the future.
  20. TLís currently believe the principal spends some time asking questions of the TL about teaching and learning and believe this is sufficient for the future.
  21. TLís currently perceive principals as spending a little over some time relying on the TL to keep him/her abreast of developments that affect the TLís role but should continue to spend this amount of time in the future.
  22. TLís currently perceive their principals as spending some time seeking advice from the TL with respect to issues of whole school information management, but this is sufficient for the future.
  23. TLís perceive their principals as currently spending some time encouraging the TL to take risks but should not increase this in the future.
  24. TLís currently perceive principals as spending some time encouraging teaching staff to employ a wide range of information resources in their teaching programs, but should not increase this in the future.
  25. TLís currently perceive principals as spending a little over some time encouraging the TL to take a leadership role in the development and maintenance of a school wide information skills continuum, but should not increase this time in the future.
  26. TLís perceive principals as spending almost some time working with the TL to develop the TLís personal professional development plan but should not increase this time in the future.
  27. TLís perceive principals as spending a little more than some time advocating that the TL be a member of key school committees to tap into his/her expertise and schoolwide perspective and should continue to spend this time in the future.
  28. TLís perceive principals as spending some time encouraging teaching staff to incorporate the learning and use of a range of information skills into their teaching programs and to assess process skills as well as content but should not increase this time in the future.
  29. TLís currently perceive the principal as spending some time on providing time release and funding for the TL to undertake ongoing professional development and should continue to spend this time in the future.
  30. TLís perceive their principals as spending a bit more than a little time on ensuring the needs of the LRC are addressed when the TL is not represented on a key committee and should be spending almost some time on this in the future.
  31. TLís perceive principals as spending between a little more than some time on seeking feedback from staff about their impressions of the quality of library resource centre services and should decrease this to just under some time in the future.
Overall principals view themselves as spendingabout the same time on tasks as the TLís perceive them to be spending. Principals also perceive themselves as generally spending as much time on tasks as they can/think they should, although where possible they indicate the need to spend a little more time on tasks in the future than they are currently spending/able to spend on tasks now. See table below for specific present to future figures.
 

Descriptive Statistics from frequency analysis for Principals perception of time spent on tasks/ or in support of tasks by themselves
 
Question Present Present Future Future
  Mean  SD Mean SD
1 3.88 .36 3.89 .32
2 3.8 .47 3.91 .28
3 3.94 .24 3.89 .32
4 3.74 .57 3.74 .28
5 3.71 .52 3.74 .82
6 3.83 .38 3.94 .24
7 3.29 .93 3.6 .55
8 3.43 .85 3.69 .63
9 3.14 1.0 3.43 .81
10 3.40 .88 3.66 .68
11 3.8 .53 3.77 .65
12 3.4 .74 3.71 .52
13 3.86 .43 3.89 .53
14 2.83 1.04 3.2 1.18
15 3.57 .78 3.6 .91
16 2.51 1.09 2.8 1.32
17 3.40 .85 3.69 .58
18 3.31 .76 3.4 .81
19 3.09 .95 3.26 1.04
20 3.37 .77 3.57 .61
21 3.71 .57 3.69 .58
22 3.46 .70 3.49 .85
23 3.51 .82 3.66 .54
24 3.77 .43 3.8 .58
25 3.63 .77 3.77 .65
26 3.2 .96 3.34 .91
27 3.74 .51 3.8 .47
28 3.63 .81 3.83 .45
29 3.29 .71 3.46 .85
30 3.27 1.07 3.34 1.03
31 2.83 1.20 3.29 .89
 
 

Descriptive Statistics from frequency analysis for Teacher Librarians Beliefs
 
Question Mean SD
32 3.83 .75
33 3.64 .71
34 3.15 1.40
35 3.15 1.40
36 3.27 1.23
37 3.66 .60
38 1.56 1.07
39 3.59 .67
40 3.86 .35
41 3.92 .28
42 3.83 .42
43 3.22 1.07
44 3.58 .67
45 3.73 .67
46 3.71 .67
47 3.46 .99
48 3.28 1.17
49 2.80 1.26
50 3.34 .90
51 3.83 .38
52 2.39 1.52
53 3.32 1.04
 

The Majority of TLís believe that the following statements:

TLs felt the following statements were not so accurate:  
Descriptive Statistics from frequency analysis for Principals Beliefs  
 
Question Mean SD
32 3.91 .28
33 3.69 .68
34 3.03 1.54
35 3.31 1.08
36 2.49 .98
37 3.54 .82
38 2.00 1.24
39 3.34 .84
40 3.8 .47
41 3.8 .58
42 3.57 .98
43 3.6 .60
44 3.71 .46
45 3.49 1.01
46 3.86 .36
47 3.03 1.12
48 2.91 1.29
49 3.71 .79
50 3.49 .56
 

Principals differed to TLs in that:

 

T-Tests - Present vs Future Analysis

Teacher Librarians
Due to limited space only the questions that yielded significant differences between time currently spent and time perceived to be required in the future are presented. To be considered significant a difference had to be significant at p =/< .01.
 
Question Present  Present Future Future P value
  Mean SD Mean SD  
31 2.33 1.59 2.86 1.58 .003
 

This analysis demonstrated that TLís believe their principals should be spending more time in the future on the following tasks than they feel they currently do:

Principal  
 
Question Present Present Future Future P value
  Mean SD Mean SD  
12 3.4 .736 3.71 .519 .003
 

This analysis demonstrated that principals also believe they should be spending more time in the future on the following tasks than they feel they currently do:

 
Teacher Librarian vs Principal

Present and Future Questions and Beliefs
All significant t-values were unequal t-values due to the violation of the homogeneity of variance assumption on these questions.
 
Question Levenes F-value Levenes p-value T-value df p-value
1 Future 21.59 .000 -2.86 69.22 .006
20 Future 6.54 .012 -2.81 88.36 .006
12 Present 13.27 .000 -3.33 90.83 .001
12 Future 19.27 .000 -3.43 78.99 .001
23 Future 19.83 .000 -2.91 78.78 .005
24 Future 27.67 .000 -3.49 80.37 .001
24 Present 15.05 .000 -3.66 75.93 .000
28 Future 17.62 .000 -3.17 77.28 .002
28 Present 8.33 .005 -2.76 91.95 .007
30 Present 27.98 .000 -3.17 91.73 .002
3 Present 21.92 .000 -2.98 79.36 .004
4 Present 6.96 .01 -2.93 89.05 .004
6 Present 14.01 .000 -2.98 79.54 .004
6 Future 32.72 .000 -3.66 63.61 .001
36 Belief .004 .95 2.8 70.43 .007
 
 
Question TL Mean TL SD Principal Mean Principal SD
1 Future 3.37 1.31 3.88 .323
20 future 3.07 1.29 3.57 .61
12 Present        
12 Future        
23 Future 3.02 1.54 3.66 .539
24 Future 3.0 1.59 3.8 .58
24 Present 3.08 1.33 3.77 .42
28 FUture 3.22 1.35 3.82 .45
28 Present 3.0 1.40 3.63 .81
30 Present 2.37 1.72 3.29 1.07
3 Present 3.66 .66 3.94 .23
4 Present 3.27 1.05 3.75 .51
6 Present 3.37 1.06 3.82 .38
6 Future 3.27 1.37 3.94 .24
36 Belief 3.01 .96 2.48 .98
 

Analysis indicates that Principals and TLs differ on how much time they think the Principal currently spends on the following tasks:

Analysis indicates that Principals and TLs differ on how much time they think the Principal should spend in the future on the following tasks: Principal and TL differed on one beliefs: Thus it would seem that TLs view their training as more important than the principals do.

 

Other Variables 
 
  Quals Nos. Exec. Age Gender Teach Prior
TL - Mean 2.81 .277 3.24 1.12 1.93
TL - SD .879 .367 .81 .327 1.26
Principal - Mean 3.581 4.18 3.70 1.75 3.25
Principal- SD .85 1.44 .55 .438 1.28
Levenes F-value 1.05 49.01 5.73 13.12 .070
Levenes p-value .31 .000 .018 .000 .792
t-value -4.56 -16.84 -3.69 -8.28 -5.40
df 110 55.94 112.62 71.31 112
p-value .000 .000 .000 .000 .000
 

Teacher librarians and principals differed significantly on the number of years they have spent teaching prior to appointment to their current position, number of years in executive positions, gender, age, and qualifications.

While the Teacher Librarians were more likely to have spent between 5-9 years teaching prior to their appointment as a TL, Principals were more likely to have spent between 12-17 years teaching prior to appointment as a principal.

Whilst Teacher Librarians were likely to have spent no time in executive positions, principals were likely to have spent between 15-19 years in such positions.

Whilst Teacher Librarians were primarily female , principals were primarily male.

Whilst TLís were likely to be between 40-49 years of age, principals were likely to be between 50-59 years of age. 

Whilst Tls were likely to have a qualification of Honours of Grad Dip, principals were more likely to have acquired a Masters degree.

 

Present and Future and Beliefs Overall
 
  Present Future Beliefs
Teacher Librarian - Mean 95.75 96.85 64.48
Teacher Librarian - SD 24.49 34.06 6.25
Principal - Mean 107.14 111.83 64.29
Principal - SD 11.79 12.03 6.57
Levenes F-value 8.04 17.913 .137
Levenes p-value .006 .006 .712
t-value -3.02 -3.07 .14
df 88.80 78.99 92
p-value .003 .003 .890
 
Principals and Teacher Librarians overall differed significantly on the amount of time they perceived the Principal to spend on tasks. Principals viewed themselves as spending slightly more time on tasks than did the Teacher Librarians. Principals and Teacher Librarians also significantly differed on the amount of time they perceived the principal should spend on tasks in the future. Principals believed they should spend more time on tasks in the future than did the Teacher Librarian. Principals and TLs did not differ significantly on their beliefs globally.

  


This is to certify that this analysis is an original piece of work completed for the use of James Henri
and Lyn Hay of Charles Sturt University. Written by Natasha Wood, 4th July 1998.


IFLA IRRG Principals Project Web Site Coordinator Lyn Hay
Updated 18 September 1998.
Copyright 1998